Core Instruction Principle 2
Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students.
If one cardinal principle of teaching is a commitment to the welfare and education of young people, another is a commitment to subject matter. Accomplished teachers are dedicated to acquainting students with the social, cultural, ethical, and physical worlds in which we live, and they use the subjects they teach as an introduction to those realms. A comprehensive understanding of subject matter entails more than the recitation of dates, multiplication tables, or grammatical rules within a single content domain. Rather, it requires the pursuit of substantive knowledge by exploring domains and making connections to become fully engaged in the learning process.
Here are some examples of subject knowledge, as well as links to articles on the subject of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages.

Sheltered Instruction Lesson Plan

Defense Language Institute English Language Course Curriculum

Course Book 26, pages 42-43



Content (cognitive) Objectives:  Students will be able to form sentences in the present perfect simple tense and past simple in the correct manner and in the appropriate situation.

Language Objectives: English Language Proficiency, Comprehension (Include 4 language skills and vocabulary.Students will be able to:

  1. (Listening) Extract details and correct answers from simple past  and present perfect questions.

  2. (Speaking) In pairs, discuss and depict Sergio and Ward’s lives on a single timeline, beginning with their high school graduation.

  3. (Reading) Read the dialogue between two old high school friends (p. 42)

  4. (Writing) Write a summary paragraph on one of the two high school friends’ lives since high school.

  5. (Vocabulary) Related to transitions and changes in life.

Socio-affective Objectives

Students will be able to overcome their anxiety about when to use the simple past tense and when to use the present perfect tense. 

Materials: smartboard, DLI course book, whiteboard, vocabulary list, testimonials in print and via YouTube, homework worksheet

II. BUILDING BACKGROUND (Motivation, prior knowledge, key vocabulary, lesson focus, activate schemata) Poll students: What have you been doing since high school?  What did you do in high school that you are most proud of?  How long have you been in the SANG?


When is it appropriate to use the Present Perfect? Why do we use it? Show the timeline and write guide sentences. What key indicators do we search for when deciding when PP is appropriate?  When is it correct to use past simple?

Give examples of when present perfect is a more precise language tool than past simple.  Ex:  “I have been teaching English since 2013” is stronger than “I taught English in Dublin.”

Go through PowerPoint Presentation on Present Perfect.

IV. PRACTICE AND APPLICATION (include 4 language skills, research-based strategies, scaffolding, and interaction [cooperative learning])

  1. Complete Exercise A Chart A and B from the information in the dialogue on p. 42 and by listening to the prompts in the teacher’s book margin.

  2. Listen to  and extract the present perfect phrase (I’ve always loved you)

  3. Summarize either Sergio’s or Ward’s life since high school, using your own words as in Exercise B.

  4. Exercise C Multiple Choice, choose the best answer.

Further Practice:  In pairs, construct a timeline on the two friends’ lives, beginning with their high school graduation. 

V. REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT (relate assessments to learning objectives)

Now write an email using at least three complete sentences to talk about places you have been and three complete sentences about things you did while you were there.  Once finished, share with your partner.


Here's Ariana Grande putting Present Perfect to perfect use in her music video.  See if you can pick out the present perfect sentences in this song. Discuss with your partner what you think the song is about, and what Ariana is trying to communicate. 

VII. Homework:  Complete HW-13 to correct 1st period tomorrow.